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Opening Asia for Russia

Asian countries

Asia is the largest part of the world in terms of population and area on the planet Earth. The mainland of Asia is located in the Eastern and Northern hemispheres of the Earth. The exception is the Chukotka Peninsula, which is located in the Western Hemisphere. The Isthmus of Suez connects Asia with Africa, and the Bering Strait separates it from North America.

In 1963, the Soviet scientist Eduard Makarovich Murzaev proposed two options for the border between Europe and Asia.  The first is based on political and administrative boundaries. According to this version, it should go along the state border of Georgia and Azerbaijan (the Caspian Sea belongs entirely to Asia), Russia and Kazakhstan - to the Chelyabinsk region. Asia includes the Chelyabinsk, Sverdlovsk, Tyumen regions, Khanty-Mansiysk and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs. The Kara Sea is completely Asian, and the Novaya Zemlya archipelago is European. The second option is based on physical and geographical boundaries: the Caucasus - the Caspian Sea - the Ural River - the Ural Range.

Historical reference: It is believed that the ancient Greek geographer was the first to draw the border between Europe and Asia in his "Earth Description" Hecateus of Miletus (VI-V centuries BC). According to his version, it passed, in particular, along the Phasis River (Rioni in Georgia) and the Mediterranean Sea.

At the present stage, the border between Asia and Europe remains controversial. On Russian geographical maps, it is carried out along the watershed of the Ural Mountains, then along the Mugodzhary (the southern spur of the Ural Mountains in Kazakhstan), along the Emba River in Kazakhstan, then along the Caspian Sea, the Araks River in Transcaucasia, along the Black and Marmara Seas, the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits.

In 1964, the XX Congress of the International Geographical Union in London adopted the border between Europe and Asia, depicting it on the map with a red line. It passed along the eastern sole of the Ural Mountains and Mugodzhar, the Emba River, the northern coast of the Caspian Sea, the Kumo-Manych depression and the Kerch Strait. However, this decision is not accepted by everyone.

With statistical and economic calculations in Russia, the border between Asia and  Europe is carried out along the eastern administrative borders of the Arkhangelsk region, the Komi Republic, Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions, then along the state border of Russia with Kazakhstan, along the northern administrative borders of Dagestan, Stavropol and Krasnodar & nbsp; edges.

Historical reference: According to one version, the name of Asia is associated with the kingdom of Assuwa in Asia Minor, which was defeated around 1230 BC by the Hittites, an ancient Indo-European people. In the ancient Greek epic there is also the character Asiya - the mother (in another version - the wife) of the titan Prometheus.

As for the border between Asia and Africa, in the modern period it passes through the Suez Canal. Therefore, part of Egypt, located on the Sinai Peninsula, belongs to Asia, and the rest of the territory - to Africa.

The area of ​​Asia together with the islands: 43.4 million km².

Population: 4.2 billion people, this is more than 60% of the world's population (data from the last census, held in 2012).

The average height of Asia  above sea level: 960 meters.

The highest point in Asia:  8848 meters - Mount Everest, or Chomolungma (Himalayas, China).

The lowest point in Asia relative to sea level: -405 meters - in the Dead Sea, which is an endorheic salt lake between the Palestinian Authority, Israel and Jordan.

Asia's northernmost point: Cape Chelyuskin, Taimyr Peninsula, Russia.

Asia's southernmost point: Cape Piai, Malay Peninsula, Malaysia.

Asia's westernmost point: Cape  Baba, peninsula of Asia Minor, Turkey.

The easternmost point of Asia: Cape Dezhnev, Chukotka Peninsula, Russia.

Geographical center of Asia: Several settlements claim the title of the geographical center of Asia at once. Its location depends on the chosen method for calculating the boundaries of Asia, as well as the presence or absence of remote islands in the list of its extreme points. Thus, the settlement of Saldam and the city of Kyzyl in the Republic of Tyva (Russia), as well as the town of Yungfen in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, can be considered the center of Asia.

In the north, east and south, Asia is washed by three oceans: the Arctic, Pacific and Indian, respectively. In the west of Asia there are inland seas of the Atlantic Ocean: Azov, Black, Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean. In the mainland of Asia, there are vast areas of internal flow: the basins of the Caspian and Aral Seas, Lake Balkhash and others. 20% of the world's fresh water reserves are concentrated in Lake Baikal (excluding glaciers). The Dead Sea is the world's deepest tectonic basin.

The coast of Asia is relatively poorly dissected and is represented mainly by large peninsulas: Asia Minor, Sinai, Arabian, Hindustan, Korean, Kamchatka, Chukchi Peninsula, Taimyr and some others.

Among the large islands that make up Asia are the Big Sunda, Novosibirsk, Sakhalin, Kuril, Severnaya Zemlya, Taiwan, Philippine, Hainan, Sri Lanka, the Japanese Islands and others.

Up to 3/4 of the territory of Asia is occupied by mountains and plateaus - these are the Caucasus, the Hindu Kush, the Pamirs, the Karakoram, the Himalayas, Tibet. All 14 of the highest peaks of the earth are located here, which soared more than 8000 meters above sea level. East Asia remains an area of ​​active volcanoes.

Almost all types of climate are represented in Asia - from arctic in the far north to equatorial in the southeast. In East, South and Southeast Asia, the climate is monsoonal. In India, there is the city of Cherrapunji, where a record amount of precipitation falls - an average of 11,777 mm per year, and in 1994 it surpassed itself, "taking" 24,555 mm). In Western Siberia the climate is continental, in Eastern Siberia and Saryarka (the steppes of Kazakhstan) it is sharply continental, and in the plains of Central, Central and Western Asia there is a semi-desert and desert climate of temperate and subtropical zones. In Southwest Asia, the climate is tropical desert and the hottest within Asia.

According to the UN classification, Asia is divided into 5 sub-regions:
  • East Asia: People's Republic of China, Republic of China (Taiwan), DPRK and Republic of Korea, Mongolia, Japan;
  • Western Asia: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Bahrain, Georgia, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, Yemen, Qatar, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, UAE, Oman, Palestinian territories, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey;
  • South East Asia: Brunei, East Timor, Vietnam, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines;
  • South Asia: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka;
  • Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.