Opening Asia for Russia

29.10.2020 68 просмотров

The International Archaeological Symposium with the participation of specialists from Russia, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan, timed to coincide with the 5500th anniversary of Sarazm, was held by the ANO "Institute for Central Asian Studies", the Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography named after. A. Donish of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan October 22-23. 

The event took place directly at the World Cultural Heritage site - the Bulgarian Historical and Archaeological Complex.
The discovery of a cultural historical monument and even its inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List is not the end of the road in its preservation, but only the beginning. Monuments require special attention and control over their condition, regular monitoring of the compliance of ongoing actions with the approved site management plan, the formation of new recommendations after the expiration of the previous plan. 

Identify the best way of conservation< br>
So, for example, Sarazm is a monument of the Neolithic era, and the state of the cultural layers of the object at the time of their discovery left much to be desired. 
“The height of each cultural layer was no more than 50-60 centimeters. Despite this, 4-5 cultural layers were discovered at each site, reflecting the periods of development of the settlement. Now there are three types of objects at the Sarazm site: those that were practically not subjected to conservation work, those that are preserved by backfilling, and objects that have an iron structure above them. And at the time of the activity of the Tajik-French group, which, starting from 2005, for eight years, conservation work on the monument, separate work was carried out on each type of object, ”said the head of the department of general history of the Russian-Tajik (Slavonic) University Farkhod Razzokov.

The main goal of the group's work was not only to preserve the objects of Sarazm, but also to identify the most advanced way to preserve the cultural layer on monuments of this type. 

“Unfortunately, not a single state of Central Asia has identified a method that would be ideal. Any preservation of a raw monument requires a preliminary long-term study to develop a suitable approach.  But on the example of our work, the optimal method was identified - the preparation of a special solution from loess - soil collected directly on the site and in the surrounding area, water and hay. Monitoring of the result of work at Sarazma was introduced, which demonstrated the effectiveness of this method compared to those used at other sites, ”Farhod Razzokov summed up. 

Without the creation of protective structures in any way

The work, of course, does not end there. Much remains to be done to ensure the safety of the site for many years to come. Rafael Valeev, Vice-President of the ICOMOS National Committee of Russia, Head of the Department of World Cultural Heritage of the Kazan Federal University, noted that the Tatarstan experience shows that the preservation of such objects without the creation of protective structures is impossible. 

The experience of working at the Bulgarian Historical and Archaeological Complex was presented by the director of the Bulgarian State Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve Ramil Ziganshin

changing weather conditions, changing seasons. As in the territory of Sarazm, we have built a lot of protective structures that allow you to save objects. About five objects are closed completely from external influence. But there are objects that are under the constant influence of natural phenomena, and we are constantly working to preserve them. For example, brick-and-lime slabs are installed on top of buildings, which protects them from precipitation,” said Ramil Ziganshin

Kazakhstan adopts the experience of Tatarstan

The need for a carefully balanced approach to every decision made in relation to monuments of historical and cultural heritage is also recognized by representatives of Kazakh scientific centers. Their point of view on these processes at the symposium was presented by the director of the Institute of Archeology named after Margulan of the Republic of Kazakhstan Bauyrzhan Baitanaev.

urban centers. The ruins of ancient Shymkent were quickly destroyed during the rapid growth of the city in the 19th and 20th centuries. At the same time, the peripheral part of the monument was destroyed to a large extent. Formerly, ancient Shymkent had an urban structure typical of Central Asia and consisted of a citadel and shakhristan. At present, shakhristan of the Shymkent settlement and the citadel towering in the center have a relatively small area, which is 4 hectares.

“For the third year already, we have been implementing the project “Archaeological research, conservation, the place of the ancient settlement of the archaeological park. The first stage has now been completed. Restoration and conservation work has been carried out on a number of objects. In the future, it is planned to create a museum, and in this respect we want to use the experience of our colleagues from Tatarstan in Sviyazhsk and Bolgar, - stressed Bauyrzhan Baitanaev. – I really like the approach, and we also want to “embed” a museum on the settlement, build it according to the latest technological word. And this idea was supported by the government and directly by the first president of Kazakhstan. Within the next two years, the object will be completely museumified.  

All eyes on cities

Ancient cities are an expression of cultural traditions, spiritual ideas, social devices of civilizations. Problems related to the study of cities is one of the priorities in the work of the Institute of Archeology named after A.I. OH. Khalikov Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan. And Kazan Federal University also pays much attention to the creation, study and application of modern methods of studying objects, said the director of the Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, the director of the Higher School of Historical Sciences and World Cultural Heritage of Kazan Federal University Ayrat Sitdikov.< br>
“Specialists of Tatarstan have high competencies and a team of professionals who work with the use of digital technologies, geophysical methods, and the study of the chemical composition of certain objects. Such a comprehensive work on the study of objects allows us to imagine the processes that took place in the Middle Volga region in a completely different way, - the speaker explained. – Of course, the period that we are exploring is later than the time when cities arose in Tajikistan. This period largely reflects the era of the Middle Ages, when a civilizational urban explosion took place here and a whole series of large political state formations arose. This is the Khazar Kaganate, and the Great Bulgaria, and the Volga Bulgaria, and the Golden Horde. Opportunities of work of interaction with colleagues from Central Asia make it possible to reach a deep comparative analysis of the processes taking place in the urban environment, in particular the emergence of these cities. 

The influence of Central Asian traditions on the ancient cities of Russia 

If we talk about the results that were made in this direction by Tatarstan researchers, it should be noted, first of all, the wide geography of research - the Caucasus, Crimea, the Lower Volga region, Siberia, Central Russia. Of course, a great influence on the features of the formation of cities came from the territory of Central Asia. 

“We find many analogies, traditions, influences that are present not only in the form of imported products, but also in the features of the development of the planning structure, fortification . In particular, in the form of a heating system in residential buildings, numerous products and technologies that appeared with the arrival of masters of Central Asia from the regions of Palmyra, the Aral Sea, the Caspian Sea, - said Ayrat Sitdikov< /b>. – And, of course, natural-scientific methods are widely used in these studies: in matters related to climate research, allowing us to see how much nature influenced the characteristics of the life of society in a particular territory. 

Of course , good results are provided by the possibility of using non-destructive research methods to identify large architectural objects. In particular, a lot of work is being done to study the so-called Valley of the Kings or the City of the Dead of the Golden Horde, where the khans of the Golden Horde were buried. This is a large complex of mausoleums, covering an area of about 30 hectares, with about 60 objects. 

Cooperation is extremely important

“This is just a small list of works and studies that are now carried out by scientists of Tatarstan in the field of archeology and preservation of heritage sites, but they create opportunities for developing new approaches for cooperation with colleagues from other regions,” Ayrat Sitdikov noted. 

In conclusion, it is worth It should be noted that today scientists from Russia and the Central Asian republics can demonstrate an example of fruitful partnership in the field of study and restoration of cultural heritage monuments. The main goal of the symposium was precisely the start of the consolidation of domestic and foreign scientific and educational resources to introduce the latest achievements of world science into the practice of studying and preserving the historical and cultural heritage of the peoples of Russia and Central Asia. 

“More than 5300 only archaeological sites, if we add monuments of history and culture - more than 7,000 thousand. This is a huge layer, which testifies to the close contacts that existed with Central Asia even at that time and the possibilities of cooperation in the field of their study and preservation today. We have the Great Volga Road program, which was part of the Great Silk Road, and we are actively cooperating with our colleagues from Central Asia involved in preparing the inclusion of a number of objects in the UNESCO transnational serial nomination of the same name. Despite the fact that the Soviet Union has long been gone, the problems of preserving monuments remain common even today,” concluded Rafael Valeev


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