Greater Asia: What is science diplomacy and why is science diplomacy gaining more and more weight in contemporary international relations?
< br> Yulia Petrova:
We live in a world of constant technological change, in which science, technology and innovation are becoming engines of social and economic development and driving forces of globalization and are key tools in the reconfiguration of the future world. Therefore, it is scientific diplomacy that becomes the primary tool of foreign policy for states, having great opportunities for creating soft power of influence, due to the fact that not only the results of research, but the very principle of broad scientific communication is a way to strengthen peace and serve the sustainable development of society. "Greater Asia": What impact can scientific diplomacy have on a country's international image, and how? Yulia Petrova:
Non-state actors a priori influence the country's image abroad. Suffice it to recall the example of Hollywood, which through films spreads the ideology of American society, or, for example, the situation of the decline in the international influence of the United States after September 11, while their influence in the field of science and technology continued to be highly respected.
Science, being a more universal tool than culture and economics, allows organizing cooperation where it seems to have been finally interrupted. Research cooperation can help bridge the gap between countries by creating a forum of mutual support and common interests. An example is the "inter-Korean cooperation" in the field of chemistry, biotechnology and nanoscience, which was first proposed in March 2010 and subsequently served as a platform for countries to converge in other areas. "Greater Asia »: Why scientific diplomacy cannot be a part of state diplomatic procedures and what is the peculiarity of communication within the framework of scientific diplomacyand?
< br> Yulia Petrova:
It should be understood that science as such stands above national interests. Even Anton Pavlovich Chekhov noticed that there is no national science, just as there is no national multiplication table; what is national is no longer science. At the same time, each country has its own specific scientific interests.
In this sense, scientific diplomacy is an ambivalent (dual) tool, developing, on the one hand, broad supranational communications, contributing to broad international scientific cooperation, and on the other hand, by promoting the interests and values of one's country in the world.
The diversification (diversity) of scientific research in the world does not allow formalizing these processes. At the moment, the system of scientific communications can be compared to the activity of the brain, in which numerous neurons exchange signals in all directions at the same time, or blockchain technology, in which the verification and confirmation of information take place simultaneously at different points. < b>Greater Asia: At the moment, the global competition in science has intensified more than ever, but at the same time, we are seeing that global partnership and cooperation to promote the internationalization of innovation is present in government decisions in most developed countries. This includes the EU and state consortiums of the USA, Great Britain, Japan and many other countries. Why is joining forces so important in an era of rapid development of science and technology? Yulia Petrova:
Modern scientific problems common to the whole world, such as pandemics, sustainable development, environmental disasters, climate change and population aging require the development of effective platforms for cooperation between states. It is technological exchanges that are the most effective tools for establishing closer international ties and strengthening relations. At the moment of the COVID-19 pandemic, we are witnessing the unity of efforts of all scientific communities, regardless of the existing political and economic differences, and this is one of the most striking examples of scientific diplomacy. Greater Asia: How do the methods of scientific diplomacy differ from the standard methods of maintaining communication in the scientific world? Yulia Petrova:
As I have already noted, science diplomacy is a wider tool than international scientific cooperation, establishing additional channels of communication, interaction and sources of information with the help of scientists and by improving the image of the country, has an impact on wider groups of the population, going beyond the scientific communities. "Greater Asia": When can scientific diplomacy be more effective than direct communication between researchers?< /i>
Scientific diplomacy promotes involvement in technological exchanges of both state and non-state actors, such as business, public organizations (NPOs), professional communities, individual individuals, allowing them to interact, beyond geographical boundaries, administrative barriers and financial restrictions.
How can scientific diplomacy methods help young scientists in their research or career development?
Yulia Petrova :
Methods of scientific diplomacy, new formats and channels of international interaction with a wide range of stakeholders will contribute to the expansion of professional contacts of young scientists and their participation in international and national research, the development of professional careers and international recognition; will facilitate cross-sectoral rotation.
Attracting talent is the key to developing R + D + I. C What difficulties does Russia face in this area? Do you feel a lack of young personnel in your scientific research?
Unfortunately, it should be noted that Russian science is experiencing a shortage of young personnel. Therefore, a key aspect of strengthening development and innovation is to attract high-quality human resources. In this worldwide race for talent, Russia will have to make its scientific and innovative systems more attractive to young scientists, and often these are questions not only and not always of financial incentives, but also questions of professional recognition. Scientific diplomacy works, among other things, to develop scientific mobility, and above all to expand incoming mobility.
< i> Do you think that science diplomacy can bring innovations closer to society and allow them to become more widespread? Yulia Petrova:
Of course, as I have already noted that scientific diplomacy involves various aspects of society in technological and innovative exchanges, which contributes to a wider awareness of the population, popularization and more effective implementation of innovations in real life, rapid learning of their application and, as a result, allows solving various social problems.< br> "Greater Asia": Can the introduction of science diplomacy methods be considered the first step towards overcoming the institutional model of R&D systems, in which the citizen is considered only as a consumer or a taxpayer? Yulia Petrova:
In fact, in the R&D system, citizens should not be considered only from the point of view of consumers or taxpayers. Methods of organizing the interaction of scientists, in which politicians, citizens and non-scientific organizations join researchers as drivers of innovation, are the most effective in overcoming the widest range of social problems. "Greater Asia" : How do you assess the possible participation of universities and scientific organizations in the development of scientific diplomacy? Yulia Petrova:
< br> Universities and scientific organizations, being centers of scientific thought, act as full-fledged subjects of scientific diplomacy. In this regard, universities, conducting not only research but also training, develop the influence of national scientific schools, especially where special attention is paid to the export of education. "Greater Asia": How can scientific diplomacy be useful for business and how will it contribute to the development of the research potential of business structures? Yulia Petrova:
Science diplomacy allows businesses to more quickly and efficiently receive information about new promising research and make investment decisions. In addition, maintaining broad contacts, the subjects of scientific diplomacy get the opportunity to broadcast new forms of interaction between business and science both for individual organizations and for states as a whole. "Greater Asia": b> In the process of introducing new methods and after analyzing the results, do you plan to develop proposals for national and regional managers of Russia to improve our research and development system? Yulia Petrova:
I believe that any action should have its result, so the process of analyzing the effectiveness of the methods used is ongoing. Of course, those results that will be assessed as important and relevant will be brought to the attention all stakeholders.