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In honor of the Independence Day of Kyrgyzstan, experts analyzed the foreign policy of the republic

27.08.2021 235 просмотров

An online conference was held in Bishkek on the topic: "Kyrgyzstan in international politics: 30 years of an independent journey."

The event dedicated to the Independence Day of the Kyrgyz Republic was attended by political scientists, economists, public figures, as well as teachers and students of universities of the Kyrgyz Republic.

The discussion was organized by the Eurasians - New Wave Foundation.

During the conference, domestic experts and youth activists analyzed the foreign policy of Kyrgyzstan and the effectiveness of the country's participation in global and regional projects of our time.

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Askar Beshimov, former Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kyrgyz Republic, Professor of the Diplomatic Academy under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kyrgyz Republic:

“In the early 1990s, the already former Soviet republics faced a difficult choice – which model of the economy and political system to choose. At the very early stage of independence, Kyrgyzstan chose a liberal model - the minimum participation of the state in regulating the economic life of the country, granting freedom of speech and freedom of conscience. Based on this decision, privatization processes began, we were the first to introduce the national currency. Adhering to the liberal model, the country joined the WTO. Such steps predetermined our future existence. The positive moment was that Kyrgyzstan in a very short period turned into the largest re-export hub - Chinese goods went through the Kyrgyz Republic to the entire post-Soviet space. We have the largest markets in Central Asia: Dordoi, Madina, Kara-Suu.  But at the same time, the shadow economy “bloomed” – well-established smuggling systems appeared.”

profit. We are talking, in particular, about the fishing industry, the production of beans and the development of tourism (primarily skiing). However, many liberal decisions did not have the expected economic effect.

“I remember that many then convinced Akaev that if freedom of speech was ensured in the country, freedom of conscience, start the process of privatization, declare a free exchange rate - that is, apply all the liberal theories of Keynesianism, then this will lead the country forward. It turned out that, yes, this is a necessary condition, but not sufficient. Very quickly there was a division of society into the poor and the rich. And accordingly, this gave rise to huge flows of migration of the population. According to various estimates, from 1 to 1.5 million people left Kyrgyzstan to work in other countries. Yes, there is an inflow of funds and, due to this, an increase in the level of consumption in the country. But it is important to understand that we are losing the best minds.”

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Alina Moldokeeva, political scientist:

“The process of sovereignization of Kyrgyzstan took place with the active use of financial and institutional support from donor countries and international organizations focused on radical liberal reforms. But in the conditions of a traditional society, the formation of stable state institutions turned out to be impossible. This is evidenced by repeated changes to the Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic, coups in 2005, 2010 and 2020, large-scale conflicts and clashes in the south of the republic. Ensuring real sovereignty requires a change in the sovereignization model, which should take into account national identity, regional specifics and the foreign policy situation.

Given the underdevelopment of the institution of private property in Kyrgyzstan, privatization did not initially form effective managers, it only strengthened the process of redistribution of power. Obviously, the implementation of market reforms in the Kyrgyz Republic, as in other CIS countries, was more of a political decision than an economic one. In the course of the reforms, many reformers perceived market institutions as some kind of universal forms suitable for any system and did not take into account the peculiarities of the environment, stereotypes and values. The result of this was the threat of turning Kyrgyzstan into a failed state, the threat of losing state sovereignty. And it's still relevant today."

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Nurgul Akimova, economist:

« An analysis of the country's balance of payments can show whether certain political decisions were made correctly and how they affected the lives of ordinary citizens. There are several main stages here. Thus, until 1998 industry and agriculture dominated in Kyrgyzstan. After joining the WTO, a re-export model of the economy was formed. And due to the fact that large enterprises began to be privatized, the service market began to develop. Since that time, the trade balance of the republic began to develop negatively. The balance of payments and the exchange rate of the national currency helped to balance the technical assistance of donors and the proceeds from the sale of gold.

The years 2005-2010 were marked by an increase in internal and external migration. The base income of the Kyrgyz Republic consisted of the sale of gold, remittances of migrants, food exports and a small share of exports of light industry products.

The re-export model of the economy dominated until 2015, until Kyrgyzstan joined the EAEU. The decision taken 6 years ago led to changes in customs clearance rules. There were big changes, re-export was stopped. Active trade has had a positive impact on the economy of Kyrgyzstan. Business savings were reinvested in the construction sector and the real estate market. Kyrgyzstan's accession to the Eurasian Economic Union has led to a reduction in traditional types of foreign economic activity. Internet sales of goods and services began to develop. Digitalization and a change in the economic model have begun.”

30 years ago - on August 31, 1991, an extraordinary session of the Supreme Council of the Kyrgyz Republic adopted a resolution on the "Declaration of State Independence of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan". According to this historic act, the country was declared an independent, sovereign, democratic state.

Along with gaining independence, Kyrgyzstan got the opportunity to become a full-fledged actor in international relations. During the years of sovereignty, the Kyrgyz Republic has established diplomatic relations with 165 countries of the world. The Republic is a member of a number of international organizations and major integration associations.

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