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Scientists from Yakutsk have developed a methodology for raising children in nomadic conditions

04.02.2023 ТАСС 27 просмотров

In Yakutsk, they wrote recommendations for raising children in nomadic conditions. 

Experts have developed methodological recommendations for the family upbringing of preschool children in nomadic conditions. This was reported to TASS by Natalia Sitnikova, head of the Department of Nomadic Education of the branch of the Federal Institute of Native Languages of the Peoples of the Russian Federation in Yakutsk.

"The methodological recommendations are addressed to managers, teachers and educators of children's educational organizations working with parents who lead a nomadic lifestyle. The recommendations were developed for organizational, methodological and practical assistance in implementing the activities of a family preschool nomadic group, taking into account the provisions of federal and regional regulatory documents," Sitnikova said.

Scientists believe that traditions, work, the unity of universal and national education should become the basis for the upbringing of children in the family of the peoples of the North. At the same time, in their opinion, not all modern parents and kindergarten teachers use folk traditions in their work. "In the current conditions, it is important that parents and kindergarten teachers are well aware of folk traditions, family values of raising children," the agency interlocutor believes.

Each nation has its own system of education, reflecting the peculiarities of living conditions and mentality. For example, the traditions of family education among the Hunts are based on labor. "The girls learned to run a household, helped to make skins, learned to sew, decorate clothes made of beads and fur. The boys made fishing gear, sleds, boats," the expert noted.

In Even families, each family member, including children, had their own area of responsibility. "At the age of seven, children could catch and tie a domestic deer on their own. From the age of six or seven, the father took his son hunting, where he watched, helped the elders, and carried out certain assignments. At the same age, boys were given models of rifles, bows, and spears corresponding to their height, which they learned to own and use while playing," Sitnikova noted.

Evenki brought up children's interest and respect for the work of their parents. "With the transition of the Evenks to a sedentary and semi-nomadic lifestyle, the direct connection between the traditional economy and the nomadic way of life is gradually weakening. However, today, in spring and summer, children observe the work of reindeer herders, fishermen, and take an active part in their work," Sitnikova said.

The revival of languages The return of language to the sphere of everyday communication is the main task of many traditional communities.

"Despite the fact that many of the languages are taught at school and in kindergarten, the new generation practically does not speak them. The generation of young parents also cannot always provide a speech environment for communication in the family," the agency interlocutor noted.

According to her, teaching is mainly aimed at more or less mechanical memorization of vocabulary and learning to read. Experts advise paying more attention to the spoken language. According to her, there are several "positive methods of revitalizing languages in the world that can be applied in the family, including in nomadic conditions." This is, for example, the "master-student" method of reviving endangered languages, developed by the Institute for the Development of American Indian Languages at the University of Arizona and the Interdisciplinary Center for Arctic, Remote and Cold Territories Research at the University of Northern Iowa.

As Sitnikova clarified, it is not necessary to organize any formal meetings for masters to work with students. They can take place in any form and in any conditions: during berry picking, fishing, pet care, cooking, sewing and other daily chores. "The most important thing is that the master and the student are close and talk to each other in their own language," the expert noted.

The training is carried out with the help of language immersion. The master and the student commit themselves to spending 10 to 20 hours a week together, talking mainly in their own language. "We understand that it is quite difficult to organize classes for 10, let alone 20 hours a week. However, in places of nomadic reindeer herders-parents, grandparents have the opportunity to immerse children in the linguistic and cultural environment," Sitnikova concluded.

About nomadic education In the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation live about 82.5 thousand representatives of indigenous peoples.

About 20 thousand tundra-dwellers with their families roam in the Arctic all year round. They have a special status and the opportunity to enjoy preferences from the state. There are two forms of general education that are available to children from such families - a boarding school and a nomadic school.

In the Soviet period, boarding schools were a universal form of education for children of indigenous minorities. Among the negative aspects of this form of education, experts note the difficulties of adapting a child in the village, separation from the family, a sharp change environment and cultural environment. An alternative for indigenous communities was the development of "red plague" and later nomadic schools.

Since 2005, regional legislation on nomadic schools has been created in Yakutia. There are already 10 nomadic units in the region with coverage of about 100 children. The example of Yakutia was followed in the Amur Region, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Taimyr.

In the Arctic regions of Russia, 4,676 families lead a traditional way of life in places of traditional economic activity of indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East. According to the institute, about 7 thousand children are brought up in nomadic families, of which more than 2 thousand are of preschool age.

In many regions, a form of immersion in the language environment during the summer holidays is common. It is supported by the initiative of parents and activists from the field of education to organize language classes.

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